Skip to content

Internet Traffic Management in Canada eConsultation

March 11, 2010

Wednesday, April 22, 2009

Welcome to the CRTC’s online consultation on Internet traffic management practices in Canada. We’re looking for your thoughts on these practices. The comments and discussion resulting from this consultation will help shape the upcoming CRTC hearing on Internet traffic management practices, as well as form part of the public record. We welcome your participation and thank you for sharing your opinions on the various topics.

Background

Some Internet service providers (ISPs) use traffic management techniques to influence or alter the flow of Internet traffic on their networks. The use of certain practices has raised concerns in Canada and other jurisdictions. On November 20, 2008, the CRTC initiated a proceeding to examine Internet traffic management practices and consider whether such practices are appropriate.

The Heavy Reading research report, commissioned as part of the CRTC’s public proceeding, analyzes different traffic management technologies and practices available to Internet service providers. These include technologies that can inspect, identify and react to different types of traffic, or focus on particular subscribers. Different practices can have different impacts on the end-user experience.

See:Save Our Net and the CBC! Please Take the Time and share your opinion.

***

Bandwidth throttling

Bandwidth throttling is a method of ensuring a bandwidth intensive device, such as a server, will limit (“throttle”) the quantity of data it transmits and/or accepts within a specified period of time. For website servers and web applications, bandwidth throttling helps limit network congestion and server crashes, whereas for ISP’s, bandwidth throttling can be used to limit users’ speeds across certain applications (such as BitTorrent), or limit upload speeds.

A server, such as a web server, is a host computer connected to a network, such as the Internet, which provides data in response to requests by client computers. Understandably, there are periods where client requests may peak (certain hours of the day, for example). Such peaks may cause congestion of data (bottlenecks) across the connection or cause the server to crash, resulting in downtime. In order to prevent such issues, a server administrator may implement bandwidth throttling to control the number of requests a server responds to within a specified period of time.

When a server using bandwidth throttling has reached the allowed bandwidth set by the administrator, it will block further read attempts, usually moving them into a queue to be processed once the bandwidth use reaches an acceptable level. Bandwidth throttling will usually continue to allow write requests (such as a user submitting a form) and transmission requests, unless the bandwidth continues to fail to return to an acceptable level.

Likewise, some software, such as peer-to-peer (P2P) network programs, have similar bandwidth throttling features, which allow a user to set desired maximum upload and download rates, so as not to consume the entire available bandwidth of his or her Internet connection.

***

Bell Canada Confirms Throttling

Techdirt, Slashdot and Canadian law Professor Michael Geist all discuss our report yesterday on Bell Canada’s decision to start throttling traffic of their residential wholesalers before it hits their networks without telling those ISPs they were doing so. The result was a flurry of angry users, and executives at major ISPs who had to explain why they “broke” promises not to throttle traffic. Popular Canadian ISP Teksavvy met with Bell Canada today, and CEO Rocky Gaudrault says Bell is confirming the practice:

They’re now openly acknowledging that they are rolling out a full throttling process. They plan to have things fully throttled by April 7th. All BT and P2P traffic will be affected. They claim they are allowed to do so according to their Terms and Services under the Fair Usage Policy in the tariffed contracts… We’ll be looking into this shortly.

In other words, Bell Canada is using their monopoly power to degrade the quality of the bandwidth headed to ISP partners. The move makes those competitors immediately less of a threat — given Sympatico throttles their own customers and wouldn’t want a competitor offering better service.

***

Canadian ISP Sympatico Admits to P2P Throttling-Nov 2007

The rhetoric issued by Sympatico in defense of bandwidth throttling resembles Comcast’s recent defense of similar practices. The ISPs claim that bandwidth throttling leads to a better Internet experience for customers. As numerous advocacy groups have pointed out in response to such claims, bandwidth throttling and other kinds of discriminatory content filtering fundamentally change the nature of the Internet to the detriment of consumers. Selectively blocking transmission of content hardly constitutes a valid means of improving the Internet experience.

The bandwidth throttling practices used by these companies are made more egregious by the secrecy surrounding the precise nature of what gets blocked and when. In the official Sympatico forum, the company representatives who admit that bandwidth throttling is occurring are declining to respond to questions about the extent of the throttling or the conditions that Sympatico uses to determine whose connectivity to degrade. Some ISPs, like Comcast, actively punish employees for disclosing such information to the public.

Dialogos of Eide

March 7, 2010

Images I have used on google’s blogspot com and because of problems connecting I thought to start a blog using wordpress.

Am receiving 403 Forbidden for all URL’s using .blogspot.com

Just wanted people to know that using a ISP provider Telus  has meet with problems that are currently being looked at and have been encountered by a number of people.

***

4xx Client Error

The 4xx class of status code is intended for cases in which the client seems to have erred. Except when responding to a HEAD request, the server should include an entity containing an explanation of the error situation, and whether it is a temporary or permanent condition. These status codes are applicable to any request method. User agents should display any included entity to the user. These are typically the most common error codes encountered while online.

400 Bad Request
The request contains bad syntax or cannot be fulfilled.[2]
401 Unauthorized
Similar to 403 Forbidden, but specifically for use when authentication is possible but has failed or not yet been provided.[2] The response must include a WWW-Authenticate header field containing a challenge applicable to the requested resource. See Basic access authentication and Digest access authentication.
402 Payment Required
Reserved for future use.[2] The original intention was that this code might be used as part of some form of digital cash or micropayment scheme, but that has not happened, and this code is not usually used. As an example of its use, however, Apple’s MobileMe service generates a 402 error (“httpStatusCode:402” in the Mac OS X Console log) if the MobileMe account is delinquent.
403 Forbidden
The request was a legal request, but the server is refusing to respond to it.[2] Unlike a 401 Unauthorized[2] response, authenticating will make no difference.
404 Not Found
The requested resource could not be found but may be available again in the future.[2] Subsequent requests by the client are permissible.
405 Method Not Allowed
A request was made of a resource using a request method not supported by that resource;[2] for example, using GET on a form which requires data to be presented via POST, or using PUT on a read-only resource.
406 Not Acceptable
The requested resource is only capable of generating content not acceptable according to the Accept headers sent in the request.[2]
407 Proxy Authentication Required[2]
408 Request Timeout
The server timed out waiting for the request.[2] According to W3 HTTP specifications: “The client did not produce a request within the time that the server was prepared to wait. The client MAY repeat the request without modifications at any later time.”
409 Conflict
Indicates that the request could not be processed because of conflict in the request, such as an edit conflict.[2]
410 Gone
Indicates that the resource requested is no longer available and will not be available again.[2] This should be used when a resource has been intentionally removed; however, it is not necessary to return this code and a 404 Not Found can be issued instead. Upon receiving a 410 status code, the client should not request the resource again in the future. Clients such as search engines should remove the resource from their indexes.
411 Length Required
The request did not specify the length of its content, which is required by the requested resource.[2]
412 Precondition Failed
The server does not meet one of the preconditions that the requester put on the request.[2]
413 Request Entity Too Large
The request is larger than the server is willing or able to process.[2]
414 Request-URI Too Long
The URI provided was too long for the server to process.[2]
415 Unsupported Media Type
The request did not specify any media types that the server or resource supports.[2] For example the client specified that an image resource should be served as image/svg+xml, but the server cannot find a matching version of the image.
416 Requested Range Not Satisfiable
The client has asked for a portion of the file, but the server cannot supply that portion.[2] For example, if the client asked for a part of the file that lies beyond the end of the file.
417 Expectation Failed
The server cannot meet the requirements of the Expect request-header field.[2]
418 I’m a teapot
The HTCPCP server is a teapot.[7] The responding entity MAY be short and stout.[7] This code was defined as one of the traditional IETF April Fools’ jokes, in RFC 2324, Hyper Text Coffee Pot Control Protocol, and is not expected to be implemented by actual HTTP servers.
421 There are too many connections from your internet address
422 Unprocessable Entity (WebDAV) (RFC 4918)
The request was well-formed but was unable to be followed due to semantic errors.[4]
423 Locked (WebDAV) (RFC 4918)
The resource that is being accessed is locked[4]
424 Failed Dependency (WebDAV) (RFC 4918)
The request failed due to failure of a previous request (e.g. a PROPPATCH).[4]
425 Unordered Collection (RFC 3648)
Defined in drafts of “WebDAV Advanced Collections Protocol”,[8] but not present in “Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning (WebDAV) Ordered Collections Protocol”.[9]
426 Upgrade Required (RFC 2817)
The client should switch to a different protocol such as TLS/1.0.[10]
449 Retry With
A Microsoft extension. The request should be retried after doing the appropriate action.[11]
450 Blocked by Windows Parental Controls

***

The 403 Forbidden HTTP status code indicates that the client was able to communicate with the server, but the server will not let the client access what was requested.

This response is returned by the Apache web server when directory listings have been disabled. Microsoft IIS responds in the same way when directory listings are denied. This response may also be returned by the server if the client issued a WebDAV PROPFIND request but did not also issue the required Depth header, or issued a Depth header of infinity[1].

403 Substatus Error Codes for IIS

  • 403.1 – Execute access forbidden.
  • 403.2 – Read access forbidden.
  • 403.3 – Write access forbidden.
  • 403.4 – SSL required.
  • 403.5 – SSL 128 required.
  • 403.6 – IP address rejected.
  • 403.7 – Client certificate required.
  • 403.8 – Site access denied.
  • 403.9 – Too many users.
  • 403.10 – Invalid configuration.
  • 403.11 – Password change.
  • 403.12 – Mapper denied access.
  • 403.13 – Client certificate revoked.
  • 403.14 – Directory listing denied.
  • 403.15 – Client Access Licenses exceeded.
  • 403.16 – Client certificate is untrusted or invalid.
  • 403.17 – Client certificate has expired or is not yet valid.
  • A Microsoft extension. This error is given when Windows Parental Controls are turned on and are blocking access to the given webpage.[12]